Dayushu Town, Remembrance of the Guishui River

  • offcial website of Beijing Expo 2019 2017-09-15 11:03:28

An Overview of Dayushu Town

Located in the southeast of Yanqing District, Beijing, Dayushu Town borders Jingzhuang Town to the east, Badaling Town to the south and Kangzhuang Town and Yanqing Town to the west. It faces Shenjiaying Town across the Guishui River. The seat of Dayushu Town’s government is 5 kilometers away from Yanqing Town, where the District’s government is located, and 70 kilometers from downtown Beijing.

The historical relics in the District are mainly related to the Great Wall and include castles, brick kilns and beacon towers. Among them, the relics of brick kilns in the Xiaozhangjiakou region are the largest in number and best preserved Ming Dynasty (1368-1644) kilns in the District and have great value for preservation and use. The ancient buildings are mainly Qing-styled. In Danihe and other villages, there are ancient residential buildings from the Qing Dynasty (1644-1911). Dayushu Town was part of Yanqing County and later the Joint County of Changping and Yanqing in Xuanhua Province of the puppet United Mongolian Autonomous Government (1941-1945) during Japanese occupation. In 1953, it was divided into Jiangjiatai and Yanghuzhuang townships. Later on, it became Dayushu Village, the Dengta People's Commune, the Dayushu People's Commune and Gaomiaotun Commune, successively. In 1983, it was restored as Dayushu Village. In 2000, it became Dayushu Town. Its area covers 60.7 square kilometers and its population totals 15,000. Dayushu Town is one of most industrialized towns in Yanqing District and is home to a significant number of early and recent modern era relics.

According to statistics from previous archaeological surveys and for the purpose of this book, a total of 32 locations in Dayushu Town with historical and cultural value are covered in this book. They include 22 ancient relic sites, nine ancient buildings and one stone-caved temple with stone inscriptions. There is another site that is under the protection of the local Yanqing District government’s relic protection office and thus not covered herein. Of the 32 immovable cultural heritage sites, there is one under District-level protection, accounting for 3% of the total.

Ancient Cultural Relics Sites

Dayushu Town is home to 22 ancient cultural relics sites, accounting for 69% of the Town’s total. It is also home to relics of four ancient cities, account for 18% of the total, as well as seven brick kilns, accounting for 32%. Also present are the relics of nine military facilities, accounting for 41% of the total, in addition to the relics of two temples, accounting for 9%. The Nanzhaipo relics site, a District-level protection site, is located in the Town. The oldest is the Fenghuangtai Relics Site from the Jin Dynasty (1115-1234). None of these sites have undergone regular excavation. Over 90% of the Town’s ancient relics are part of the Ming Dynasty Great Wall. A large number of Great Wall-related relics have survived. They include castles, brick kilns and beacon towers. The Town has the largest number of brick kilns in Yanqing District.

Nanzhaipo Relics Site

Located one kilometer northeast of Xinbaozhuang Village, the site is surrounded by forests. Its geographic coordinates are east longitude 115°58′7.2″ and north latitude 40°24′15.8″ and it has an elevation of 577 meters. Round in shape, Nanzhaipo was built on a hilltop during the Ming Dynasty. At that time, it was one of the Eight Nanshan Camps in Yanqing. With a total area of 2,826 square meters, it is 135 meters in perimeter and 60 meters across. The highest point of the camp’s wall is 15 meters, and low walls tend to reach around 6 meters in height. The gate, about 3 meters in width, is located on the east side. It was no longer a military strategic location after Manchu troops invaded the Shanhaiguan in 1644, before temples and theaters were built in the camp. Before the People’s Republic of China was founded in 1949, three-day temple fairs were held each year from the 14th to the 16th of the 7th month according to the traditional Chinese calendar. Thousands of local villagers would gather at temple fairs, where thronging crowds watched opera performances, went shopping, offered incense to Buddha and prayed.

Nanzhaipo had seven Guan Yu temples, six Buddha temples, and one-and-a-half Yuhuang Pavilions, all of which were destroyed during the Cultural Revolution (1966-76). Only their remains have survived. Bricks, tiles and broken walls can be found at the relics site. It was recorded in the first archaeological survey carried out in 1956, and no excavation had been conducted. Therefore, no valuable relics have been dug out. In August 1997 and February 1998, Nanzhaipo was covered in reports by Beijing TV and Beijing Radio. In 2003, it was named a District-level relics site. Nanzhaipo, a rarely seen building, round in shape and dominating the sky of the nearby area, is the landmark building in the local area and has great value for preservation and use.

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